Over the last decade, significant body of research and clinical trials involving PEMF, Thermal Stimulation and Osteoarthritis was developed. Selected peer-reviewed articles are listed below along with their abstracts. This research guided the development of the NovoPulse Osteoarthritis treatment modality for pain and osteoarthritis.

pemf research summary

Reduces Joint Inflammation
Prevents Cartilage Degeneration
Promotes Regenerative Activity
Provides Long-Term Pain Relief

thermal stimulation RESEARCH SUMMARY

Increases Concentration of HSP 70
Increases Cell Viability & Metabolism
Accelerates Cartilage Restoration
Suppresses Cell Apoptosis
Provides Short-Term Pain Blockage

pemf research


The most important scientific finding during this period was the discovery Adenosine -A2a Receptors anti-inflammatory pathway.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside generated by inflamed tissues that has been recently recognized as the major anti-inflammatory regulator. Under normal conditions, adenosine is continuously released from cells and maintained at low base concentration. Inflammation causes the level of extracellular Adenosine rise dramatically (up to 200-fold). Binding of Adenosine to A2a receptors downregulates the activity of the immune system and thus reducing inflammation. The activation of the A2a receptors inhibits early and late events occurring during an immune/inflammatory response and participates in tissue remodeling and restoration.

The Adenosine A2a Receptor anti-inflammatory pathway can also be activated by an electric field. During PEMF therapy, the electric field is carried into the treatment zone by a pulsed magnetic field produced outside the body. The magnetic pulse induces an electrical signal that stimulates cellular anti-inflammatory and anabolic activities in the injured tissue. The downstream activity of A2aR reduces pain associated with inflammation by suppressing production of the pain mediator prostaglandin E2 and accelerates the natural healing of tissues. Multiple studies have demonstrated effectiveness and safety of PEMF therapy in suppressing inflammation.

The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of PEMF on a cell is due to its ability to increase the concentration of receptors A2a on the cell membrane. PEMF stimulation increases the number of active A2a receptors on the cell membrane by creating a conformational change of their protein and making them active and available for binding with adenosine ligand. As a result a strong anti-inflammatory response is achieved by changing the concentration of the receptors on the cell membranes. PEMF stimulation of A2a receptors provides an effective novel treatment for inflammatory diseases of joints.

A serious challenge in treating OA joints with PEMF is the delivery of the electric field into cartilage. Being located between two bones and having lower electric resistivity than bones the articular cartilage experiences several times lower electric field than adjacent bones. In the NovoPulse patented design the electric field is delivered directly to the cartilage without losses and or dead zones. Dead Zones are present at the center of every electromagnetic coil.


Characterization of adenosine receptors in bovine chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes exposed to low frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields.

Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.

New insights and possible therapeutic implication of adenosine analogs and pulsed

Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.

Modification of osteoarthritis by pulsed electromagnetic field–a morphological study

A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials

Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and adenosine receptors modulate prostaglandin E2 and cytokine release in human osteoarthritic synovial fibroblasts

Effects of Electrical Physical Stimuli on Articular Cartilage

Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the cartilage joint thickness of distal femoral metaphysis in the rat.

Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

Adenosine receptors as a Biological Pathway for the Anti-Inflammatory and Beneficial Effects of Low Frequency Low Energy Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

Role of PEMF in the treatment of early osteoarthritis of the knee

thermal stimulation research


Concurrent with the research at Ferrara University, a team of scientists at Kyoto University Medical School was conducting studies on the effects of thermal stimulation on osteoarthritis. These studies revealed a new important physiological process:

Thermal stimulation induces production of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in chondrocytes, which fulfills three very important survival functions:

  1. It repairs misfolded proteins within cells, improves cells function and increases their viability;
  2. Increases cell metabolism and rate of production of biological substances required for cartilage restoration by 4 – 7 times;
  3. Blocks apoptotic death of chondrocyte cells.

Inflammation in OA is triggered and maintained by pro-inflammatory proteins from dead chondrocytes. By blocking apoptotic cells death, HSP70 increases the number of viable chondrocytes and serves as a powerful anti-inflammatory factor that reduces number of dead cells - the main trigger of joint inflammation and cartilage degradation in OA.

In their latest research published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research June 2013, the Japanese scientists suggested that the best approach to treat OA is the combination of mild electrical (PEMF) and Thermal Stimulations.


Mild electrical stimulation with heat stimulation increase heat shock protein 70 in articular chondrocyte.

Effect of heat stimulation on viability and proteoglycan metabolism of cultured chondrocytes: preliminary report.

Effects of heat stimulation via microwave applicator on cartilage matrix gene and HSP70 expression in the rabbit knee joint.

Relief for Pain

After trauma of a head-on snowmobile crash.

"My patient is a 56 year-old male mechanic being treated for a head-on snowmobile crash. He received a superior and anterior endplate fracture of L4.  Chiropractic care and ultrasound therapy reduced most of the pain, but the patient still had a nagging ache in low back.  A series of Novopulse treatments 2-3 times a week for 3 weeks and patient states pain has almost completely gone away."

~ Dr. James K., Chiropractor

NovoPulse could make a difference for you or your patients.

Safe, effective, long lasting pain relief is available.

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